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The Regular Rulemaking Process
Every department, division, office, officer, bureau, board or commission in the executive branch of the California state government must follow the rulemaking procedures in the Administrative Procedure Act (Government Code section 11340 et seq.) and regulations adopted by the Office of Administrative Law (OAL), unless expressly exempted by statute from some or all of these requirements. The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) requirements are designed to provide the public with a meaningful opportunity to participate in the adoption of regulations or rules that have the force of law by California state agencies and to ensure the creation of an adequate record for the public, OAL and judicial review.
Generally, there are two types of rulemaking procedures that a state agency can pursue: regular or emergency. The regular rulemaking process requires that a state agency meet certain public hearing and notice requirements. The emergency rulemaking process has different requirements, which generally include a brief public notice period, a finding of emergency, a brief public comment period, review by OAL and an OAL decision. In addition, some agencies have requirements related to regular or emergency rulemakings that are unique to that particular agency. (Please also see either OAL's Regular Rulemaking Checklist or Emergency Rulemaking Checklist.)
For the regular rulemaking process, once a state agency decides to conduct a regular rulemaking action, it develops the documents required to conduct a formal APA rulemaking proceeding. Some agencies involve the public during this stage, while others do not. Government Code section 11346.45 requires an agency to engage in pre-notice public discussions (also called “workshopping”) if the proposal is large or complex. The agency develops four documents during the preliminary activity stage which are needed to initiate the formal rulemaking process: (1) the proposed text; (2) the Initial Statement of Reasons; (3) the STD 399 Fiscal Impact Statement; and (4) the Notice of Proposed Regulatory Action (notice).
To initiate a rulemaking action, an agency issues a notice by having it published in the California Regulatory Notice Register, by mailing the notice to those persons who have filed a request for notice of regulatory action, and by posting the notice, text, and Initial Statement of Reasons on the agency’s website. See Government Code section 11346.5. Once the notice is published in the California Regulatory Notice Register, the APA rulemaking process is officially started and the agency has one year within which to complete the rulemaking and submit the rulemaking file to OAL.
The APA requires at a minimum a 45-day opportunity to comment to the agency in writing on the proposed regulation. The notice specifies where the comments must be directed and the date this opportunity to comment in writing on the proposal closes. Under the APA, an agency has an option as to whether it will hold a public hearing on a proposed rulemaking action. However, if an agency does not schedule a public hearing, any interested person can submit a written request for one to be held. The written request for a hearing must be submitted at least 15 days prior to the close of the written public comment period, and the agency must give notice of and hold a public hearing. See Government Code section 11346.8.
After the initial public comment period, a rulemaking agency may decide to change its initial proposal either in response to public comments received or on its own initiative. The agency must then decide whether a change is (1) nonsubstantial; (2) substantial and sufficiently related; or (3) substantial and not sufficiently related. See Government Code section 11346.8(c). A rulemaking agency must make each substantial, sufficiently related change to its initial proposal available for public comment for at least 15 days before adopting such a change. Thus, before a rulemaking agency adopts such a change, it must mail a notice of opportunity to comment on proposed modifications along with a copy of the text of the new proposed changes to each person who has submitted written comments on the proposal, testified at the public hearing, or asked to receive a notice of proposed modifications. The agency must also post the notice on its website. No public hearing is required. The public may comment on the proposed modifications in writing.
The agency must then consider comments received during the 15-day comment period which are specifically directed to the proposed modifications. An agency may conduct more than one 15-day opportunity to comment on modifications.
A rulemaking agency must summarize and respond on the record to timely comments that are directed at the proposal or at the procedures followed by the agency during the regulatory action. With each comment, the agency must either (1) explain how it has amended the proposal to accommodate the comment, or (2) explain the reasons for making no change to the proposal. The summary and response to comments is included as part of the rulemaking file in a document called a Final Statement of Reasons. See Government Code section 11346.9.
A rulemaking agency must transmit a rulemaking action to OAL for review within one year from the date that the notice was published in the California Regulatory Notice Register.
OAL then has 30 working days to conduct its review. OAL must review the rulemaking record to determine whether it demonstrates that the rulemaking agency satisfied the procedural requirements of the APA and to review the proposed regulations for compliance with the six legal standards set forth in the APA: Authority, Reference, Consistency, Clarity, Nonduplication and Necessity. OAL may not substitute its judgment for that of the rulemaking agency with regard to the substantive content of the regulations. See Government Code section 11349.1.